The Shortest Route Is Not Always the Fastest: Probability-Modeled Stereoscopic Eye Movement Completion Time in VR

The Shortest Route Is Not Always the Fastest: Probability-Modeled Stereoscopic Eye Movement Completion Time in VR

Budmonde Duinkharjav, Benjamin Liang, Anjul Patney, Rachel Brown, Qi Sun
ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH Asia 2023)
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Abstract

Battery life is an increasingly urgent challenge for today’s untethered VR and AR devices. However, the power efficiency of head-mounted displays is naturally at odds with growing computational requirements driven by better resolution, refresh rate, and dynamic ranges, all of which reduce the sustained usage time of untethered AR/VR devices. For instance, the Oculus Quest 2, under a fully-charged battery, can sustain only 2 to 3 hours of operation time. Prior display power reduction techniques mostly target smartphone displays. Directly applying smartphone display power reduction techniques, however, degrades the visual perception in AR/VR with noticeable artifacts. For instance, the “power-saving mode” on smartphones \emph{uniformly} lowers the pixel luminance across the display and, as a result, presents an overall darkened visual perception to users if directly applied to VR content.

Our key insight is that VR display power reduction must be cognizant of the gaze-contingent nature of high field-of-view VR displays. To that end, we present a gaze-contingent system that, without degrading luminance, minimizes the display power consumption while preserving high visual fidelity when users actively view immersive video sequences. This is enabled by constructing 1) a gaze-contingent color discrimination model through psychophysical studies, and 2) a display power model (with respect to pixel color) through real-device measurements. Critically, due to the careful design decisions made in constructing the two models, our algorithm is cast as a constrained optimization problem with a \emph{closed-form} solution, which can be implemented as a real-time, image-space shader. We evaluate our system using a series of psychophysical studies and large-scale analyses on natural images. Experiment results show that our system reduces the display power by as much as $24\%$ ($14\%$ on average) with little to no perceptual fidelity degradation.

Bibtex

@article{duinkharjav2023shortest,
title={The Shortest Route Is Not Always the Fastest: Probability-Modeled Stereoscopic Eye Movement Completion Time in VR},
author={Duinkharjav, Budmonde and Liang, Benjamin and Patney, Anjul and Brown, Rachel and Sun, Qi},
journal={ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG)},
volume={42},
number={6},
pages={1–14},
year={2023},
publisher={ACM New York, NY, USA}
}